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Academic Motivation of Immigrant and non-Immigrant AdolescentsAuthor(s): Shaljan Areepattamannil; John G. Freeman (2008)
This research tried to better understand the academic achievements of immigrant adolescents in the GTA.

This document has been viewed 990 times.
Adolescent Stress and Coping Strategies Author(s): Cameron Montgomery
Academic performance has become one of the most prevalent stressors in western society for adolescents, and certain coping strategies can predict high school dropout (Hess & Copeland, 2001). However, studies on adolescent stress and coping present divergent causes of adolescent stress related to the environment. Moreover, results differ in terms of the way adolescents regulate their stress and coping. This literature review examines the scientific literature on the theme of adolescent stress and coping between 1997 and present and will answer the following questions in order to better understand high school dropout:
Question 1: What are the main causes of adolescents’ environmental stress?
Question 2: How do adolescents regulate their stress and coping?

This document has been viewed 1,820 times.
Are Girls Really Better Readers?Author(s): Bozena White (2007)
The reading gender gap between girls and boys is a common concern expressed in literature about literacy education - girls have consistently outperformed boys on recent large-scale reading assessments tests. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which girls are better readers than boys in Ontario, as determined by their results on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT).

This document has been viewed 1,237 times.
Are Summer Reading Programs Effective for Low Income Students?Author(s): Kim J. S. & Quinn, D. M. (2013)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board. More E-Best summaries can be found at http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

A number of studies have shown that students from
low‐income families score significantly lower on most measures
of reading. Summer reading programs are often suggested as a strategy to reduce this gap. This meta-analysis reviewed studies that evaluated the effects of summer reading interventions.

This document has been viewed 732 times.
Assessing Students' Learning SkillsAuthor(s): Dr. Don Klinger; Dr. Tess Miller; Dr. Lyn Shulha (2006)
The Ontario education system requires teachers to assess students’ academic and non-academic achievements (learning skills) separately. These skills include: works independently, teamwork, organization, work habits, and initiative. This research surveyed Grade 9 mathematics teachers in Ontario on their assessment practices relating to learning skills.

This document has been viewed 1,105 times.
Assistive Technology Tools: Supporting Literacy Learning for all Learners in the Inclusive ClassroomAuthor(s): Sider, S.; Maich, K. (2014)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html.

We are particularly interested in considering how assistive technology can be used to support the literacy achievement of all students, an area not frequently examined in the scholarly literature. In this article, we discuss the range of assistive technology tools available to students and teachers from a Universal Design for Learning (UDL) perspective, wherein strategies, resources and tools are incorporated with the needs of all students in mind.

This document has been viewed 1,579 times.
Best Practices in Walk-Throughs, an Instructional Supervision Technique, and the Impact on Student AchievementAuthor(s): E-BEST HWDSB (2009)
This "BLAM" (Bottom Line Actionable Message) was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on best practices for walk-throughs as an instructional supervision strategy to increase student acheivement. You can also view this, and other BLAMs, at the HWDSB website: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/?page_id=205

"Overall, the literature summarized in this BLAM, shows that walk-throughs can have a positive impact on student achievement
providing that they are transparent, non-evaluative, focused on an
improvement area and conducted frequently (at least once per
week). Walk-throughs should facilitate open dialogue between
teachers and principals..."

This document has been viewed 1,230 times.
Black Canadian students' beliefs regarding education and academic achievementAuthor(s): Dr. Andrea Smith; Dr. Barry H. Schneider; Dr. Martin A Ruck
There are concerns about the educational outcomes of Black youth in North America. This research compared the academic and achievement-related beliefs of Black Canadian high school students in Toronto, Ontario and Halifax, Nova Scotia.

This document has been viewed 1,095 times.
Bolstering Resilience in Students: Teachers as Protective FactorsAuthor(s): Kingsley Hurlington
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of student resilience:

"Elementary teachers are well positioned to observe students who succeed despite overwhelming odds. It often appears that risk factors in the life of a child are insurmountable; yet, there are many who flourish amidst adversity. Early resiliency research focused on these seemingly anomalous youth, tracking their success into adulthood. Researchers were eager to determine what innate processes or capacities were helping these students to be successful in spite of the odds."

This document has been viewed 1,389 times.
Boys’ Underachievement: Which Boys Are We Talking About?Author(s): Wayne Martino (2008)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Policy and research-based literature identifies boys’ underachievement, and
specifically their engagement with literacy, as both a Canadian and an
international problem. In Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) countries, boys do not perform as well as girls on the
reading comprehension and writing components of literacy tests. However,
the Program for International Assessment (PISA) 2000 report on reading
performance explicitly states that “students from less favourable socioeconomic
backgrounds are on average less engaged in reading” (p. 8). Not
all boys are underachieving, nor are all girls out-performing boys; educators
and policy makers need to address the question of which boys require help
becoming literate and what kinds of help educators can provide."

This document has been viewed 1,528 times.
Bringing Marginalized Parents and Caregivers Into Their Children’s SchoolingAuthor(s): Ippolito, J. (2012)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research on creating links between parents and schools and a list of strategies that can be used to build these relationships:

"Weak or non-existent lines of communication between homes and schools may create suspicion between teachers and parents and caregivers....[A] synthesis of the research on barriers to parental involvement provides useful insight. They identify four areas where barriers to parental involvement in education can emerge..."

This document has been viewed 1,117 times.
Bullying, student-teacher relationships, and academic performanceAuthor(s): Chiaki Konishi; Shelley Hymel; Bruno D. Zumbo; Zhen Li (2010)
Research conducted in Ontario schools has shown that large numbers of students experience violence and bullying in schools. Bullying has been found to have a negative impact on school performance and student development in general. This study looked at whether student’s academic performance is related to rates of bullying at school level, whether student-teacher connectedness has an impact on the bullying-achievement relationship and whether students who feel they have a positive relationship with their teachers perform well academically even if bullying happens at their school.

This document has been viewed 1,574 times.
Calling Upon Other Language Skills to Enhance Second Language LearningAuthor(s): Mady, C. and Garbati, J. (2014)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html.

The impact of other languages on students’ target language proficiency and the degree to which they should be used in the second language classroom remain topics of debate. This monograph explores why and how to make use of students’ prior language knowledge in the second language class.

This document has been viewed 809 times.
Classroom management practices to reduce disruptive or aggressive student behaviourAuthor(s): Oliver, R. M., Wehby, J. H., & Reschly, D. J. (2011)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on effective classroom management strategies. This and other snapshots can be accessed directly from the E-Best website at: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

"A recent systematic review sought to determine whether classroom management programs were effective in reducing
problematic behaviour in students from kindergarten through grade 12....It was found that classrooms that implemented classroom management programs had significantly lower rates of problem behaviour than classrooms not using classroom
management interventions."

This document has been viewed 2,579 times.
College MathematicsAuthor(s): Graham Orpwood; Laurel Schollen (2011)
The College Mathematics Project tracks first semester college mathematics achievement in all 24 colleges in Ontario, relating it to age, gender, and students secondary school mathematics backgrounds. It also promotes deliberations concerning ways to
increase student success in college mathematics.

This document has been viewed 971 times.
Combined Grade ClassroomsAuthor(s): Diane Lataille-Démoré
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Combined grades include children from two or more consecutive grades in one
classroom, with one teacher. This type of classroom is very common on both a
global and local scale – in Ontario, approximately 21 per cent of classes fall into
this category. Combined grades are generally found in school systems with specific
objectives for each grade level. For this reason, combined grades are different from
the multi-age model promoted in certain environments in the U.S. and Australia as a
way to focus instruction on individual development. The division in groups by age is,
historically, a rather recent phenomenon, dating back to the industrial revolution. In this monograph, the important question of how to optimize learning in a
combined grade class is addressed."

This document has been viewed 1,416 times.
Computer Assisted LearningAuthor(s): Hattie, J. (2009)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines a 2009 summary about computer assisted learning by John Hattie
http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

This document has been viewed 792 times.
Does Parent Involvement Improve Student Success?Author(s): Fan, X. & Chen, M. (2001)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines a Xitao Fan and Michael Chen's 2001 meta-analysis of parent involvement and student academic achievement. This and other summaries can also be found on the E-BEST website: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

This document has been viewed 1,013 times.
Does School Size Affect Student Achievement?Author(s): Jones K.R. and Ezeife A.N. (2011)
There has been much debate about the impact of school characteristics (such as school and classroom size) on student achievement. This study investigated the relationship between the size of a school — how large a school is in terms of student enrollment — and the academic achievement of students within that school.

This document has been viewed 910 times.
Does School Size Matter?Author(s): Newman, M., Garrett, Z., Elbourne, D., Bradley, S., Noden, P., Taylor, J. & West, A. (2006)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines a 2006 systematic review of research on school size and student achievement by M. Newman, Z. Garrett, D. Elbourne, S. Bradley, P. Noden, J.Taylor, and A. West. This and other summaries can also be found on the E-BEST website: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

This document has been viewed 1,103 times.
Effective Practices for Math Teaching in Elementary SchoolsAuthor(s): Slavin R. E. & Lake C. (2007)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines a 2007 systematic review of on different math programs available to elementary teachers by Slavin, R. E. , & Lake, C.

This document has been viewed 887 times.
Forging Safer Learning Environments: Addressing Homophobic Bullying in SchoolsAuthor(s): Gerald Walton
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of bullying in schools:

"Issues concerning gender and sexuality are rich fodder for bullying. For students
who identify or are perceived as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT),
school can be especially harrowing, as these students are frequently targeted
for bullying."

This document has been viewed 1,219 times.
Formative Assessment to Support Student LearningAuthor(s): Christine Suurtamm
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

This summary outlines research in the area of formative assessment to support student learning:

"We now have compelling research indicating that formative assessment may be the most
significant single factor in raising the academic achievement of all students and especially that of
lower-achieving students. Every teacher needs to consider how the principles of formative
assessment can be applied in her or his work."

This document has been viewed 1,363 times.
How does social anxiety affect young children?Author(s): Weeks, M., Coplan R.J. and Kingsbury, A. (2009)
This summary was created by the Evidence Exchange Network (EENet; formerly OMHAKEN). This and other summaries on mental health and addictions can also be found at: www.eenet.ca

"A young child with anxiety symptoms may be at risk of experiencing anxiety in their adolescence and adulthood....This study examines the effects of subclinical social anxiety on early elementary school
children."

This document has been viewed 1,176 times.
How Well Aligned Are Large-Scale Assessments and Report Card Grades?Author(s): Ross, J.A. & Gray, P. (2008)
The use of standardized external assessments as an indicator of student achievement has long been a controversial issue in most educational circles. This study compared students’ Education and Quality Assessment Office (EQAO) scores and their report card grades to determine whether students receive comparable ratings on the two assessments. Specifically, this study investigated the following research question: How well aligned are large-scale assessments and report-card grades?

This document has been viewed 1,104 times.
Impact of the Balanced School Day on Students and SchoolsAuthor(s): E-BEST HWDSB (2012)
This "BLAM" (Bottom Line Actionable Message) was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on the impact of a "balanced school day". You can also view this, and other BLAMs, at the HWDSB website: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/?page_id=205

"The “balanced school day” schedule (BSD, also known as “balanced day schedule”) refers to the reorganization from a traditional school day schedule with two short breaks for recess and one longer break for lunch, to a schedule that has three academic periods (usually 100 minutes in length) separated by two longer breaks (usually 40 to 45 minutes) that combine food and physical activity..."

This document has been viewed 1,316 times.
Integrated Curriculum: Increasing Relevance while Maintaining AccountabilityAuthor(s): Susan Drake; Joanne Reid
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research on integrated curriculum:

"In addition to literacy and numeracy, teachers need to address other initiatives such as environmental education, character education and the new literacies (media, critical and technological). With so many curriculum expectations to
cover and assess, it’s not surprising that teachers sometimes feel overwhelmed. How can teachers do it all? One way to address these multiple expectations is by integrating the curriculum. Integrated curriculum teaches core concepts and skills by connecting multiple subject areas to a unifying theme or issue."

This document has been viewed 1,298 times.
Integrating Aboriginal Teaching and Values into the ClassroomAuthor(s): Pamela Rose Toulouse
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"A new body of research is beginning to demonstrate that Aboriginal students’
self-esteem is a key factor in their school success. An educational environment
that honours the culture, language and world view of the Aboriginal student is
critical. Schools need to meaningfully represent and include Aboriginal people’s
contributions, innovations and inventions. Aboriginal students require a learning environment that honours who they are and where they have come from. These strategies nurture the self-esteem – the positive interconnection between the physical, emotional-mental, intellectual and spiritual realms – of Aboriginal students."

This document has been viewed 2,219 times.
Learning Mathematics vs Following “Rules”: The Value of Student-Generated MethodsAuthor(s): Alex Lawson (2007)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"There has been a significant shift in the instruction of mathematics over the past
two decades. This shift has occurred in response to growing evidence that students
were learning how to apply mathematics rules without a real understanding of
the mathematics. A particularly disconcerting observation was that student
difficulties often stemmed from our longstanding traditional methods of
mathematics instruction."


This document has been viewed 2,004 times.
Making Math Children Will LoveAuthor(s): Colgan, L. (2014)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html.

Evidence suggests that learning is energized by affect. We, as educators, must turn our attention to resources and strategies that improve students’ relationships with mathematics content and processes and pique students’ motivation, emotion, interest and attention.

This document has been viewed 777 times.
Managing Teacher-Student Relationships: A Minimalist ApproachAuthor(s): Christine Richmond
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

This summary outlines research on managing teacher-student relationships:

"Teachers can have two types of conversations with students in class. In the ideal situation the most potent
conversation is focused on learning, with minor support from the managing conversation. However, when
teachers experience lessons where conversation about managing dominates, the learning agenda can
disappear and poor outcomes are much more likely (Richmond, 2007)."

This document has been viewed 1,349 times.
Opportunities to Maximize Assessment to Support Student LearningAuthor(s): Sheryl MacMath; John Wallace; Xiaohong Chi (2009)
This study investigated the way in which two individual teachers used a variety of assessment practices to track student learning during units that integrated different subject areas. The researchers looked at assessment as, for and of learning.

The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the strengths and challenges in using all three of these assessments and describe how these assessments were attempted during an integrated assignment.

This document has been viewed 1,188 times.
Peer Feedback on Writing: An Assessment-for-Learning ToolAuthor(s): Peterson, S.S. (2013)
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

This document has been viewed 725 times.
Performing Poetry: Using Drama to Increase the Comprehension on PoetryAuthor(s): Ferguson, K. (2014)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html.

Poetry can be both challenging and intimidating to teach and learn. But how can teachers teach poetry comprehension without falling into the trap of mechanically dissecting poems for form and “real” meaning? Drama is one strategy, grounded in research, that fosters student comprehension of poetry and allows students to apply comprehension strategies.

This document has been viewed 971 times.
Physical Activity and Student AchievementAuthor(s): Fedewa, A. & Soyeon, A. (2011)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines a 2011 systematic review of the link between physical activity and student achievement by Fedewa & Soyeon.

This document has been viewed 613 times.
Poetry: A Powerful Medium for Literacy and Technology DevelopmentAuthor(s): Hughes, J. (2007)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of poetry and technology:

"Traditional notions of literacy were once related more or less exclusively to competence
in reading and writing. We have expanded these notions to include usage and
comprehension skills in speaking, listening, viewing, and representing – by which we
mean communicating through a variety of media, including visual art, drama, and
multimedia performances. In this context, our definition of literacy extends to
fluency in reading and creating electronic media. In a time when the focus is on
improving literacy, what role might poetry, a genre that is often marginalized in the
English language arts classroom, play in literacy development? How can poetry be
taught in ways that engage students, so that we can tap into its literacy-enhancing
power?"

This document has been viewed 1,094 times.
Predicting Students' FuturesAuthor(s): Ben Levin
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

This summary outlines research in the area of predicting students' futures:

"Teachers often feel that they can predict students’ futures; that we can tell by, say, age 6 or 8
students’ academic destinies. This view is strengthened by studies that show a strong relationship
between various characteristics of students, such as their socio-economic status or their school
readiness, and their later achievement. In fact, predictions of this kind are fraught with problems....History is not destiny. We know that with the right supports, most people can achieve far more than anyone thought they could."

This document has been viewed 844 times.
Professional development and teacher efficacy in MathAuthor(s): Bruce, C. D., Esmonde, I., Ross, J., Dookie, L., & Beatty, R. (2010)
This research investigates the effects of a focused professional development (PD) program on teacher beliefs about their efficacy in applying standards-based mathematics curriculum in Grade 6.

This document has been viewed 1,086 times.
Program In Brief: Empower Reading ProgramAuthor(s): E-BEST HWDSB
The Empower™ Reading program is designed to teach word identification skills and decoding strategies and to promote the effective use of these strategies. Applying these strategies effectively, the student can develop the basic skills needed for independent reading for meaning, information, or pleasure. The program focuses on 5 strategies: Sounding Out strategy, Rhyming strategy, Peeling Off strategy, Vowel Alert strategy, and SPY strategy, embedded in a metacognitive frame work.

This document has been viewed 2,392 times.
Programming for Gifted StudentsAuthor(s): E-BEST, HWDSB (2011)
This summary was created by the E-Best team at the Hamilton Wentworth District School Board. This and other research summaries can be found at http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

A variety of interventions for gifted students are currently practiced, including gifted classes, withdrawal programs, and specialized instruction and/or grouping within the regular classroom. The goal of such interventions is to allow gifted students to fully develop their abilities (alongside positive social interactions with peers).

This document has been viewed 180 times.
Programs in Brief: Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)Author(s): The PALS program was developed by the Kennedy Centre for Human Development at Vanderbilt University.
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on the Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) program. This and other snapshots can be accessed directly from the E-Best website at: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

"PALS is a systematic class‐wide reading program for students in
kindergarten to grade 6. PALS builds reading fluency and
comprehension skills through a set of activities that students are
engaged in for 35 – 45 minute sessions, 3 – 4 times a week. The
classroom teacher provides the initial lesson followed by a
prescribed lesson with materials provided . This is followed by
students working in pairs to practice and reinforce the skills
taught."

This document has been viewed 1,581 times.
Promoting Curriculum Access in Children and Youth with Reading DisabiliitesAuthor(s): Martinussen, R.
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

This document has been viewed 816 times.
Psychological and educational interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescentsAuthor(s): Merry, S. N., Hetrick, S. E., Cox, G. R., Brudevold‐ Iverson, T., Bir, J. J., & McDowell, H. (2011)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on psychological and educational interventions. This and other snapshots can be accessed directly from the E-Best website at: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

"A recent systematic review sought to determine whether psychological and/or educational interventions are effective in preventing depression in children and adolescents....When compared with no intervention, programs showed an immediate reduction in risk of depression."

This document has been viewed 985 times.
Remain in a K-8 school or transition to junior high?: Differences in student achievementAuthor(s): Jessica Whitley; Judy Lupart; Tanya Beran (2007)
There is general agreement that when students transition from elementary to junior high school, their academic performance can suffer. Some researchers claim that the difficulties that students experience in this transition might have long-term negative effects. With this in mind, many education systems in Canada have taken steps to make the transition from elementary to junior high school smoother for students.
This research used nationally representative survey data to see if there were any actual differences in achievement between students who transitioned to grade seven from an elementary school compared to those who remained in the same school.

This document has been viewed 1,001 times.
Secondary Students’ Attitudes Towards “Clickers” or Audience Response Systems (ARS)Author(s): Kay, R.H. and Knaack, L. (2009)
“Clickers” or Audience Response Systems (ARS), “permit students to answer digitally-displayed multiple choice questions using a remote control” (Kay et al., 2009, p. 1). One of the suggested benefits of clickers (or ARS) is that they allows teachers to gauge in real-time whether students are grasping the content of a lesson, and make timely adjustments to their lesson when necessary. This study investigated student attitudes towards ARS in Ontario secondary schools.

This document has been viewed 955 times.
Single-Sex ClassroomsAuthor(s): Serge Demers; Carole Bennett
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"We hear more and more about single-sex classrooms. Traditionally, this mode of teaching was exclusively found in private schools; today, more and more single-sex classes are found in publicly funded schools in Canada and the United States. In the 1980s, single-sex classrooms were introduced in some Ontario schools to address perceived gaps in achievement of girls in mathematics. According to a recent Quebec study, in 2003–04 there were over 250 intervention projects to
improve boys’ learning. By far, the most common of these interventions was the single-sex classroom."

This document has been viewed 1,165 times.
Student Interaction in the Math Classroom: Stealing Ideas or Building UnderstandingAuthor(s): Catherine D. Bruce (2007)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Research tells us that student interaction – through classroom discussion and other forms of interactive participation – is foundational to deep understanding and related student achievement. But implementing discussion in the mathematics classroom has been found to be challenging."

This document has been viewed 2,134 times.
Student Self-handicapping in Mathematics ClassroomsAuthor(s): Ferguson, J. M., Dorman, J. P. (2003)
This study investigated the relationship between classroom environment and secondary students self-handicapping behaviour. The researchers define self-handicapping as a “proactive, avoidance behaviour... designed to manipulate other people’s perceptions of performance outcomes so that the self-handicapping student appears worthy to other people in the school”. Examples of self-handicapping behaviour include deliberately not trying in class, fooling around the night before an examination, and putting off studying until the last minute.

This document has been viewed 687 times.
Supporting Struggling WritersAuthor(s): Peterson, S.S. (2014)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html.

Sadly, some students struggle in their attempts to communicate what they have learned and to interact with others through writing. This summary explores research which provides many strategies for addressing these students’ specific writing difficulties and enhancing their motivation to write.

This document has been viewed 764 times.
Teachers Identify Their Coping Strategies for the Perceived Stresses of Inclusive ClassroomsAuthor(s): Darlene Brackenreed (2011)
Adjusting to the demands of inclusive classrooms can be a stressful experience for Ontario teachers (Leithwood, 2006). This study investigated the coping strategies used by teachers in Ontario to manage this stress.

This document has been viewed 958 times.
Teachers’ Familiarity and Use of Formative Assessment Strategies to Enhance Student LearningAuthor(s): Volante, L. and Beckett, D. (2011)
In this study, the researchers investigated K-12 teachers’ familiarity with, and use of, formative assessment practices. The researchers also examined the factors that accounted for the under use of these
practices in Ontario classrooms.

This document has been viewed 1,067 times.
Teaching Elementary MathAuthor(s): Small, M. (2013)
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

"Teaching through problem solving is about setting appropriate tasks, creating supportive environments and helping students to succeed without leading. Although some would argue that all mathematical tasks should be of this sort, others see it as one approach within a more varied menu. No matter the frequency of problem solving use, it is essential that students have opportunities to learn by thinking and doing and not by simply copying."

This document has been viewed 761 times.
Technology in the Mathematics ClassroomAuthor(s): Bruce, C.D. (2012)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of interactive whiteboards:

"Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) are a relatively new learning tool. While some early studies suggest that they may only be a “slick presentation tool” used to enhance teacher-directed lessons, others have identified a greater potential. Research on use in mathematics classrooms suggests that when we combine thoughtful professional learning with implementation, we enable teachers to maximize the use of IWBs to enhance student learning through multi-modal representations and inquiry approaches."

This document has been viewed 2,102 times.
The Educational Implications of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderAuthor(s): Rosemary Tannock
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Teachers should be aware that although there are many different perspectives on
ADHD, there is ample scientific evidence affirming its existence and its detrimental
impact on individuals. Classroom practices can make a difference for children with
ADHD."

This document has been viewed 2,486 times.
The Effect of School Leadership on Student AchievementAuthor(s): Dr. John A. Ross; Dr. Peter Gray (2006)
This research study sought to evaluate the effects of principal leadership on student achievement. Ross and Gray (2006) re-analyzed results of data that had previously been reported
in other articles in order to test the influence of leadership, including
professional commitment and collective teacher efficacy, on student achievement.

This document has been viewed 1,089 times.
The Impact of Individualized Tutoring on Children in Foster CareAuthor(s): Flynn, R., Marquis, R., Paquet, M., Peeke, L. & Aubry, T. (2012)
This study investigates the impact of individualized tutoring on students’ academic achievement. Specifically, the researchers compared the reading and mathematics abilities (as indicated by test results) of 2 groups of primary school foster children. The first group of students included primary school foster children who received individualized tutoring in reading and mathematics throughout the school year, and the second group included children who did not receive this individualised tutoring.

This document has been viewed 1,083 times.
The Impact of Interdisciplinary Planning on Classroom Practice: Perceptions of Teachers and AdministratorsAuthor(s): Racknor, W. and Drake, S. (2011)
In 2008, the Bluewater District School Board in Ontario began to use interdisciplinary planning with junior kindergarten (JK) to grade 6 teachers, JK to grade 8 administrators, and teachers from two high schools. In this approach, teachers are intended to work in collaborative teams to develop interdisciplinary units based on provincial curriculum standards. The units developed by these teams are structured around “big ideas” such as change and interdependence and focused on developing higher order thinking skills such as problem solving, communication, and critical literacy.

This study investigated teacher and administrator perceptions of the impact of these new units on classroom practice.

This document has been viewed 663 times.
The Inclusion of English Language Learners in French as a Second Language ClassroomsAuthor(s): Mady, C. (2012)
This study examined French as a Second Language teachers’ knowledge and beliefs about the inclusion of English Language Learner (ELL) students in French as an Official Second Language (FSOL) classes.

This document has been viewed 753 times.
The Performance of French Speaking Minority StudentAuthor(s): Bouchamma, Y. and Lapointe, C. (2008)
Recent studies have raised concerns about the writing achievement of minority French-speaking students (students who attend school in provinces where the majority of the population speaks a language other than French) when compared with French-speaking and English speaking students who live in majority environments (in which the majority of the population speaks the same language as the student). This study examines the causes that students attribute to their writing successes and failures in minority and majority French-speaking Canadian provinces, including Ontario.

This document has been viewed 1,028 times.
The relationship between report cards and EQAO scores.Author(s): Ross, J. and Kostuch, L. (2011)
This study examined the relationship between report card grades and student scores on the Educational Quality and Assessment Office (EQAO) tests in grades 3 and 6 for the 2007-2009 school years.
More specifically, this study was guided by three main research questions:
a) What is the level of agreement between report card grades and EQAO scores?
b) Do factors such as gender, subject area, student achievement, or grade level impact the level of agreement between these two indicators student achievement?
c) How well do report card grades predict the likelihood of success on the standardized assessments?

This document has been viewed 554 times.
The Relationship Between Student Self-Efficacy and Ability in Reading and WritingAuthor(s): Julie Corkett; Blaine Hatt; Tina Benevides (2011)
Bandura (1977) coined the term "self-efficacy", which can be understood as a person’s belief in his/her ability to do something. This research study explored the relationship between teacher and student self-efficacy and students’ actual ability in reading and writing as measured on a standardized test.

This document has been viewed 1,189 times.
The Student FilmmakerAuthor(s): Hutchison, D. (2012)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of digital video production:

"Increasingly, teachers are being asked to address an ever-broader notion
of literacy – one that includes new forms of digital literacy, related to the
multimedia technologies students routinely interact with (e.g., blogs, wikis
and social networking websites). Yet how can teachers integrate digital literacy
with the Ontario curriculum which underscores the importance of traditional
forms of print and oral literacy? Student-created videos are one possibility
that affords an opportunity to integrate print, oral, and digital literacies
into a compelling curriculum unit."

This document has been viewed 1,230 times.
Using Classroom Amplification in a Universal Design Model to Enhance Hearing and ListeningAuthor(s): Pamela Millett
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"The ability to hear, listen and process auditory information effectively is crucial
to learning for all students, and particularly challenging for students with hearing
loss. Internal and external classroom noise levels are often high: classrooms
with many hard, reflective surfaces (like concrete block walls) and few soft,
noise-absorbing surfaces (like carpet) cause this noise to be reflected and
amplified. While technologies such as hearing aids and cochlear implants are
useful for students with hearing loss, addressing the problem of poor classroom
acoustics benefits not only these students, but also their classmates and teachers."

This document has been viewed 1,216 times.
Using Data to Improve Student AchievementAuthor(s): Christina van Barneveld
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"As lifelong learners, teachers recognize that their professional practice continues
to evolve as they reflect and act on new information.1 If teachers have information
that helps them confidently identify the root of educational challenges
and track progress, they can more readily develop action plans that will have a
positive impact on their students. All teachers share a common goal: to see every
student succeed. So, what are some effective ways to work with information to
improve student achievement?"

This document has been viewed 1,501 times.
Using Digital Technologies to Support Literacy Instruction Across the CurriculumAuthor(s): Brett, C. (2012)
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

This document has been viewed 596 times.
Using Digital Technology to Support Word Study InstructionAuthor(s): McQuirter Scott, R. (2014)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html.

Students encounter a wide range of vocabulary as they search multiple websites, listen to video and audio files, and engage in social media. Digital technologies can present an alternative way of teaching word study, while still addressing many concerns of traditional paper-and-pencil resources.

This document has been viewed 1,096 times.
Using Multilevel TextsAuthor(s): Cornford, C. (2012)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of literacy and inclusive classrooms:

"There are multiple reasons for students’ lack of engagement with text, but one of the primary reasons is that the text is either too easy or too difficult....Multilevel texts allow students at all ability levels to engage in reading together. The use of multilevel texts accompanied by the differentiation of instruction and assessment promotes higher-level thinking through focused, whole-class discussions in which all students can participate"

This document has been viewed 1,157 times.
Using Technology to Teach FractionsAuthor(s): Dr. John A Ross; Dr. Catherine D. Bruce (2009)
In North America, students have traditionally struggled to learn fractions. This is a critical issue as understanding fractions is an important aspect of everyday decision-making. Teachers have also struggled with teaching students the concepts behind fractions because of a lack of discipline knowledge and pedagogical content. This research introduced five sets of learning objects, called CLIPS, which were developed to assist teachers in teaching the concepts behind fractions.

This document has been viewed 2,045 times.
What do we know about school climate?Author(s): Thapa, A, Cohen J, Guffey S, Higgins-D’Alessandro A. (2013)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines a 2013 literature review on school climate by Thapa, Cohen, Guffey, & Higgens-D'Alessandro.

This document has been viewed 813 times.