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Are Girls Really Better Readers?Author(s): White, B. (2007)
The reading gender gap between girls and boys is a common concern expressed in literature about literacy education - girls have consistently outperformed boys on recent large-scale reading assessments tests. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which girls are better readers than boys in Ontario, as determined by their results on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT).

This document has been viewed 1,292 times.
Assessing Text Difficulty for StudentsAuthor(s): Murphy, S. (2013)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html.

This monograph explores three key kinds of knowledge that may help teachers arrive at more informed and defensible judgments about the likelihood of a text’s readability for children:
1. knowledge about the reader’s characteristics and the reading task
2. knowledge about the surface features of a text
3.knowledge about the deeper features of texts and the modalities represented in the text.

This document has been viewed 1,190 times.
Boys’ Underachievement: Which Boys Are We Talking About?Author(s): Martino, W. (2008)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Policy and research-based literature identifies boys’ underachievement, and
specifically their engagement with literacy, as both a Canadian and an
international problem. In Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) countries, boys do not perform as well as girls on the
reading comprehension and writing components of literacy tests. However,
the Program for International Assessment (PISA) 2000 report on reading
performance explicitly states that “students from less favourable socioeconomic
backgrounds are on average less engaged in reading” (p. 8). Not
all boys are underachieving, nor are all girls out-performing boys; educators
and policy makers need to address the question of which boys require help
becoming literate and what kinds of help educators can provide."

This document has been viewed 1,581 times.
Content LiteracyAuthor(s): Klein, P. (2008)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Content literacy is the ability to read, write, create, interpret and present a
range of media, in subjects such as science, social studies and mathematics.
It includes the use of informational text, that is, print and electronic media
that present factual and conceptual content. Content literacy is essential for
success in both secondary and post-secondary education, where most of what
students read will be non-fiction. Fortunately, developing content literacy can
draw on students’ authentic interests in the world around them."

This document has been viewed 1,281 times.
Effective Reading Programs for All Students in the Elementary GradesAuthor(s): Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Chambers, B., Cheung, A., & Davis, S. (2009)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on elementary reading programs. This and other snapshots can be accessed directly from the E-Best website at: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

"A recent systematic review examined studies of elementary
reading programs and compared them to one another....Researchers found that instructional process programs designed to change daily teaching practices had substantially greater research
support than programs that focused on curriculum or technology alone. "

This document has been viewed 1,480 times.
Effective Reading Programs for Struggling Students in the Elementary GradesAuthor(s): Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Davis, S., & Madden, N. A. (2011)
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on effective elementary reading programs. This and other snapshots can be accessed directly from the E-Best website at: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

"A recent systematic review examined studies of remedial reading programs and compared them to one another....Researchers found that the most effective strategy for remedial readers was an initial focus on improving classroom instruction methods, followed by one‐on‐one tutoring with an emphasis on phonics for students who continued to struggle."

This document has been viewed 2,030 times.
Morphology WorksAuthor(s): Kirby J.R and Bowers P.N. (2012)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of expanding students' vocabulary using morphology:

"What can classroom teachers do to develop word knowledge in children who need it most? Morphology describes how words are composed of meaningful parts....it also provides clues about how
words should be written and pronounced."

This document has been viewed 1,361 times.
Poetry: A Powerful Medium for Literacy and Technology DevelopmentAuthor(s): Hughes, J. (2007)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of poetry and technology:

"Traditional notions of literacy were once related more or less exclusively to competence
in reading and writing. We have expanded these notions to include usage and
comprehension skills in speaking, listening, viewing, and representing – by which we
mean communicating through a variety of media, including visual art, drama, and
multimedia performances. In this context, our definition of literacy extends to
fluency in reading and creating electronic media. In a time when the focus is on
improving literacy, what role might poetry, a genre that is often marginalized in the
English language arts classroom, play in literacy development? How can poetry be
taught in ways that engage students, so that we can tap into its literacy-enhancing
power?"

This document has been viewed 1,135 times.
Program In Brief: Empower Reading ProgramAuthor(s): E-BEST HWDSB
The Empower™ Reading program is designed to teach word identification skills and decoding strategies and to promote the effective use of these strategies. Applying these strategies effectively, the student can develop the basic skills needed for independent reading for meaning, information, or pleasure. The program focuses on 5 strategies: Sounding Out strategy, Rhyming strategy, Peeling Off strategy, Vowel Alert strategy, and SPY strategy, embedded in a metacognitive frame work.

This document has been viewed 2,534 times.
Programs in Brief: Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS)Author(s): The PALS program was developed by the Kennedy Centre for Human Development at Vanderbilt University.
This research snapshot was developed by the E-BEST team of Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board and outlines research on the Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) program. This and other snapshots can be accessed directly from the E-Best website at: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/e-best/

"PALS is a systematic class‐wide reading program for students in
kindergarten to grade 6. PALS builds reading fluency and
comprehension skills through a set of activities that students are
engaged in for 35 – 45 minute sessions, 3 – 4 times a week. The
classroom teacher provides the initial lesson followed by a
prescribed lesson with materials provided . This is followed by
students working in pairs to practice and reinforce the skills
taught."

This document has been viewed 1,677 times.
Promoting Curriculum Access in Children and Youth with Reading DisabiliitesAuthor(s): Martinussen, R.
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO):
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

This document has been viewed 836 times.
Supporting Students' Vocabulary Development Through PlayAuthor(s): Stagg Peterson, S. (2016)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

The relationships that researchers have found between children's vocabulary and their literacy and overall school success indicate the importance of vocabulary instruction. This article provides tips for teachers to support children's vocabulary development through play.

This document has been viewed 12 times.
The Voice of Text-to-Speech Technology: One Possible Solution for Struggling ReadersAuthor(s): Parr, M. (2011)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Classroom and special education teachers use many strategies to help students
read at grade level. But what do we do for children...for whom those
strategies are not effective? Assistive technology – specifically text-to-speech
technology (TTST) – offers a possible solution."

This document has been viewed 1,537 times.
Using Digital Technologies to Support Literacy Instruction Across the CurriculumAuthor(s): Brett, C. (2012)
This summary was created by the Research for Teachers project at The Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario (ETFO) and can also be found on their website at:
http://www.etfo.ca/resources/researchforteachers/Pages/default.aspx

"While the Internet is now the number one information source for both children and adults, research is
showing that online reading does differ importantly from print-based reading (Coiro & Dobler, 2007;
Coiro, 2007)...."

This document has been viewed 1,217 times.
Using Multilevel TextsAuthor(s): Cornford, C. (2012)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
and can be accessed, along with other What Works summaries, on their website at:
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

This summary provides an overview of research in the area of literacy and inclusive classrooms:

"There are multiple reasons for students’ lack of engagement with text, but one of the primary reasons is that the text is either too easy or too difficult....Multilevel texts allow students at all ability levels to engage in reading together. The use of multilevel texts accompanied by the differentiation of instruction and assessment promotes higher-level thinking through focused, whole-class discussions in which all students can participate"

This document has been viewed 1,211 times.
Word Study Instruction: Enhancing Reading ComprehensionAuthor(s): Scott, R. M. (2010)
This summary was created by the What Works: Research into Practice program at the Ontario Ministry of Education
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/whatWorks.html

"Word study instruction can provide students with vital knowledge which they can then apply to the task of comprehending text. The nature of word study will vary with the developmental needs of students and the demands of the text. A teacher’s knowledge of the structure of English is an important factor in optimizing word study instruction; equally vital is the ability to present the study of spelling, vocabulary and word choice in a manner that engages students and entices them to explore words on a deeper level."

This document has been viewed 1,174 times.